Under the condition of equal input power, the ratio of the power density of the signal generated by the actual antenna and the ideal radiating element at the same point in space. It quantitatively describes the degree to which an antenna concentrates and radiates input power. The gain is obviously closely related to the antenna pattern. The narrower the main lobe of the pattern and the smaller the side lobes, the higher the gain. Antenna gain is used to measure the ability of an antenna to send and receive signals in a specific direction, and it is one of the most important parameters for selecting a base station antenna. In general, the increase in gain mainly depends on reducing the lobe width of the radiation in the vertical plane, while maintaining the radiation performance in the omnidirectional plane in the horizontal plane. Antenna gain is extremely important to the operational quality of a mobile communication system because it determines the signal level at the edge of the cell. Increasing the gain can increase the coverage of the network in a certain direction, or increase the gain margin within a certain range. Any cellular system is a two-way process, and increasing the gain of the antenna can reduce the gain budget margin of the two-way system at the same time.
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